The distance to a water source will depend on many factors, climate, geography, land and farm ownership, wealth and size of a community. Poorer communities will find themselves with the least privileged access to clean water, instead using sources that are available to them – rivers, streams or digging holes in the ground.
Rainy and dry seasons will affect whether a river is flowing, flooding or not flowing at all.
A changing climate causes water levels to fall so families spend time walking to areas where a scoop hole can be dug. Unnecessary walking distance on a regular basis wastes time, particularly for women who do most of the work.